Okay, I’ve taken a quick look and I think I see the problem here.
You basically try to exclude every taxonomy term related to staff, like so: https://i.imgur.com/ER18DY7.png
..and as well as you exclude the whole ‘choroby’ taxonomy, which is related to attachments only, which is not even selected to be returned: https://i.imgur.com/5jiggwi.png
But instead of that, why not simply not select the staff custom post type in the General Options -> Sources panel? https://i.imgur.com/kDuEr0K.png
That is equivalent to excluding every post from every category related to staff. Excluding a whole taxonomy does not really make sense, because it simply means that you want to exclude the whole custom post type, which is a lot faster. I would rather recommend doing that.
The same is true for the inclusions by taxonomy terms. I would recommend using these options to refine the search, once you have the correct post types selected. Excluding or including a whole taxonomy is basically excluding or including the whole post type.
I would recommend first checking which post types do you want to see in results, and configuring that on the General Options -> Sources panel. Then after that, excluding a taxonomy terms if that is neccessary.
I hope this helps!Best,
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